Table 1

Cognitive dysfunction and intervention tasks impeded

Cognitive domainsIntervention tasks impededAccommodation strategies
Executive function
14 38 56
Anticipating future consequences of behaviour14 56
Executive planning skills16 57 58
Decision-making/decisional balance14 16 57 58
Logical reasoning50
Associating behaviour with situational cues (anticipating risky situations)60 97
Consciously linking actions to a triggering cue (storytelling techniques using imagery)60
Planning (identifying and organising steps required to meet goal)16 97
Valuing future events (recognising the benefits of drug treatment)16
14 38 50 54
Sustained attention/concentration over long sessions38
Motivation to engage50
Listening skills50
Emotion regulation15
Shortening the length of sessions (less than an hour per session)15 38 98
Increasing the frequency of sessions (more than once per week)38 64 98
Distributed practice (spreading out information across sessions)63 98
Agreed on signal (identifying need for a break)38
Structured sessions (well-organised objectives shared with patients)50 65–67 99
Introducing new information during closure (foreshadow content of next session)36
16 50 54
Recalling reasons for past behaviour50
Remembering cues to reduce risk behaviour50
Recollecting information from previous sessions35
Learning new information50
Memory aids (reminders and cues to be used between sessions)38 100
Example: therapy notebooks, electronic memory devices, SMS messages, calendars and alarms38 50 59 68 69 71–74 76 77
Summarising and reiterating information (frequent review throughout sessions)38 68 97
Prospective memory (emphasising routine, developing cues and elaborating on positive health behaviours)60 97 99 100
Environmental engineering (preparing for adverse events)35 97 99 100
Information processing
38 54
Processing written materials15
Managing complex language50
Accurate interpretation of feedback54
Understanding the consequences of behaviour50
Multimodal presentation of material (verbal, visual and hands-on)15 38 50 78–81
Simple language (clear, concrete examples aligned with the level of health literacy)15 50 65 71 83 84 97
Presenting information more slowly (allowing extra time for responses)38 50 65 71 80 82 83 97
Assessment with immediate feedback (oral and written clarification of material)50 85–89
  • SMS, short message service.