Table 2

Sample characteristics by tea consumption and cognitive status

CharacteristicsTotal sampleCHMCI
Tea consumerNon-tea consumerF or χ2P valueTea consumerNon-tea consumerF or χ2P valueTea consumerNon-tea consumerF or χ2P value
Demographic
 Age (years), mean (SD)69.12 (7.78)69.81 (8.21)3.360.06768.55 (7.35)69.21 (7.81)1.970.16169.93 (8.30)70.48 (8.60)0.820.366
 Sex (% female)52.4976.12113.00<0.001*51.8574.5957.67<0.001*53.4177.8754.18<0.001*
 Education (years), mean (SD)11.10 (3.50)9.96 (3.86)43.47<0.001*11.62 (3.07)10.67 (3.55)20.80<0.001*10.36 (3.92)9.15 (4.04)18.19<0.001*
Health
 Smoking history (%)26.858.47111.05<0.001*25.518.4154.76<0.001*28.788.5657.58<0.001*
 Drinking history (%)23.097.6088.34<0.001*23.467.8648.57<0.001*22.557.3139.12<0.001*
 Hypertension history (%)68.1368.280.0040.95764.6568.251.240.27773.0468.311.860.185
 Diabetes mellitus history (%)27.3029.430.870.36925.8427.920.460.53629.3530.980.220.680
 Heart disease history (%)17.6221.573.770.055*13.6920.466.790.010*23.1822.730.020.928
 Hyperlipidemia history (%)41.3041.910.83745.7844.190.220.68034.9339.521.550.238
Cognitive function
 MoCA, mean (SD)22.36 (4.34)21.41 (4.85)19.30<0.001*24.70 (2.84)24.22 (3.14)6.470.011*19.00 (3.90)18.21 (4.45)6.860.009*
 HVLT total, mean (SD)16.82 (5.29)15.81 (5.09)17.40<0.001*18.74 (4.83)17.87 (4.50)9.060.003*14.06 (4.67)13.47 (4.69)3.160.076
 HVLT recall, mean (SD)5.51 (2.85)5.08 (2.70)10.70<0.001*6.55 (2.49)6.13 (2.46)7.170.008*4.01 (2.68)3.88 (2.47)0.510.476
 DST backward, mean (SD)5.40 (2.19)5.08 (2.07)10.29<0.001*5.96 (2.20)5.70 (2.03)4.120.043*4.60 (1.91)4.38 (1.88)2.460.117
 DST forward, mean (SD)8.50 (2.55)8.05 (2.71)12.81<0.001*9.19 (2.27)8.87 (2.50)4.740.030*7.50 (2.60)7.13 (2.66)3.920.048*
  • *p<0.05.

  • CH, cognitively healthy; DST, Digit Span Test; HVLT, Hopkins Vocabulary Learning Test; MCI, mild cognitive impairment; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment.