Table 1

Mental health in the French general population after 8 weeks of lockdown (COCONEL survey, France, n=2003, 7–10 May 2020)

Depressive symptomsAnxietySleep problemsPerceived need for psychological support
PHQ9≥15GAD≥15few, a lot
% (95% CI)
Proportion in the whole sample8.8 (7.6 to 10.0)8.7 (7.5 to 9.9)68.1 (66.1 to 70.1)12.2 (10.8 to 13.6)
Row %
Gender:(P<0.001)*
 Male (n=954)7.87.960.711.8
 Female (n=1049)9.79.474.812.6
Age (in years):(P=0.001)(P<0.001)(P<0.001)
 18–25 (n=229)11.87.976.416.2
 26–45 (n=629)11.89.270.516.7
 46–65 (n=695)7.28.365.77.6
 >65 (n=450)5.38.964.211.3
Education level:
 <High-School (n=1017)8.21066.111.8
 High-school, first university degree (n=634)9.8870.512
 >2 years completed at university (n=352)8.86.369.613.9
Household income level†(P=0.003)
 Low income (n=473)12.313.371.215.2
 Medium income (n=1076)87.569.110.6
 High income (n=454)6.86.662.613
Confined in an overcrowded dwelling ‡(P=0.022)
 No (n=1826)8.58.367.711.3
 Yes (n=177)11.212.972.321.3
Occupational status since lockdown:(P=0.031)(P=0.039)(P<0.001)
 Still working full time out of home (n=357)6.46.25610.1
 Teleworking (n=282)10.65.772.214.2
 Not working, other (n=1364)9.31070.512.5
Respondent diagnosed with COVID-19:(P=0.001)(P<0.001)(P<0.001)
 No (n=1950)8.38.26811.5
 Yes (n=53)25.926.472.239.6
Someone close sent to intensive care unit:(P=0.003)
 No (n=1870)8.38.56811.3
 Yes (n=133)14.31270.724.8
Daily media exposure to COVID-19:(P<0.001)(P<0.001)(P=0.001)(P<0.001)
 <1 hour (n=478)5.68.260.88.6
 1 to 2 hours (n=617)5.26.268.110.1
 2 to 4 hours (n=421)6.96.271.210
 ≥4 hours (n=489)1814.372.621.4
  • 95% CI: 95% Confidence Interval; COCONEL: COronavirus, CONfinement: Enquête Longitudinale; GAD, General Anxiety Disorder; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9

  • *For each outcome (column variables), the p values in brackets have been computed for each covariate after adjustment for other covariates (logistic regressions). Only p values below the 0.05 threshold were reported.

  • †We computed each participant’s equivalised household income per month, taking into account its household size and composition. ‘Low income’ refers to the first quartile, ‘medium income’ to the second and third quartiles, ‘high income’ to the fourth quartile.

  • ‡<194 square feet per capita.