Table 2

Content Validity Index of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale items

Giving rating of 3 or 4 out of eight experts (n)I-CVI/averagepc* K*†Interpretation‡
I feel tense or 'wound up’.810.0041.00Excellent
I get a sort of frightened feeling, like 'butterflies' in the stomach.810.0041.00Excellent
I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen.810.0041.00Excellent
I feel restless as I have to be on the move.60.750.1090.72Good
Worrying thoughts go through my mind.810.0041.00Excellent
I get sudden feelings of panic.810.0041.00Excellent
I can sit at ease and feel relaxed.70.880.0310.88Excellent
Anxiety (S-CVI/average: 0.947)
I feel as if I am slowed down.810.0041.00Excellent
I still enjoy the things I used to enjoy.70.880.0310.88Excellent
I have lost interest in my appearance.810.0041.00Excellent
I can laugh and see the funny side of things.70.880.0310.88Excellent
I look forward with enjoyment to things.70.880.0310.88Excellent
I feel cheerful.810.0041.00Excellent
I can enjoy a good book or radio or TV programme.810.0041.00Excellent
Depression (S-CVI/average: 0.948)
  • *: pc (probability of a chance occurrence) was computed using the formula: pc = [N!/A! (N−A)!] × 0.5N, where N=number of experts and A=number agreeing on good relevance.

  • †k*: kappa designating agreement on relevance: k*=(I−CVI_pc)/(1_pc).

  • ‡: Evaluation criteria for kappa using guidelines described in Cicchetti (1984)35

  • I-CVI, Item-Level Content Validity Index; S-CVI, Scale-Level Content Validity Index.