Table 4

Multivariable logistic regression analysis of factors associated with psychological problems

 Variable Anxiety† Depression‡ Insomnia§ Overall psychological problems¶ OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) Annual household income (¥) (reference: <50 000) 50 000–99 999 – 0.77 (0.56 to 1.07) – – 100 000–300 000 – 0.64 (0.46 to 0.89)** – – >300 000 – 0.34 (0.19 to 0.63)*** – – Regular exercise (reference: no) Yes – 0.51 (0.37 to 0.70)*** – 0.62 (0.48 to 0.80)*** Smoking (reference: no) Yes – – 1.70 (0.98 to 2.94) – Drinking (reference: no) Yes – – 2.43 (1.29 to 4.55)** 2.06 (1.26 to 3.36)** Attention to type of pandemic information (reference: positive) Neutral 1.38 (1.04 to 1.83)* 1.50 (1.14 to 1.97)** 1.45 (1.00 to 2.09) 1.41 (1.12 to 1.78)** Negative 1.59 (0.89 to 2.85) 2.49 (1.48 to 4.18)** 3.34 (1.84 to 6.06)*** 1.81 (1.11 to 2.94)* Did you receive negative feedback from your families or friends who join front-line work? (reference: no) Yes 2.53 (1.50 to 4.26)** 2.96 (1.73 to 5.06)*** 3.47 (1.95 to 6.17)*** 2.38 (1.46 to 3.87)** Did you participate in front-line work? (reference: no) Yes 2.12 (1.49 to 3.02)*** – 1.90 (1.21 to 2.97)** 1.85 (1.35 to 2.54)*** If given a free choice, did you want to join front-line work? (reference: willing) Uncertain 1.33 (0.98 to 1.81) 1.47 (1.10 to 1.97)** 0.99 (0.64 to 1.51) 1.49 (1.15 to 1.93)** Unwilling 2.57 (1.50 to 4.43)** 2.38 (1.39 to 4.06)** 3.39 (1.86 to 6.17)*** 2.36 (1.44 to 3.85)** R2 4.60% 7.30% 8.40% 6.30%
• *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

• †GAD-7 score ≥10 indicates anxiety.

• ‡PHQ-9 score ≥10 indicates depression.

• §ISI score ≥15 indicates insomnia.

• ¶Met the criteria in † or ‡ or §.

• GAD-7, Seven-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale; ISI, Insomnia Severity Index; PHQ-9, Nine-Item Patient Health Questionnaire.