Table 3

Univariable logistic regression analysis of factors associated with psychological problems

VariableAnxiety†Depression‡Insomnia§Overall psychological problems¶
OR (95% CI)R2OR (95% CI)R2OR (95% CI)R2OR (95% CI)R2
Gender000.50%0
 Male1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Female1.02 (0.77 to 1.35)0.99 (0.76 to 1.30)0.69 (0.49 to 0.97)*0.99 (0.79 to 1.24)
Ethnicity0000
 Han Chinese1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Other1.04 (0.72 to 1.51)1.08 (0.76 to 1.54)0.94 (0.58 to 1.53)1.00 (0.73 to 1.37)
Annual household income (¥)00.80%0.20%0.30%
 <50 0001.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 50 000–99 9991.07 (0.76 to 1.53)0.79 (0.58 to 1.09)0.90 (0.58 to 1.39)0.92 (0.70 to 1.23)
 100 000–300 0001.00 (0.70 to 1.43)0.72 (0.52 to 0.99)*0.89 (0.58 to 1.39)0.81 (0.61 to 1.09)
 >300 0001.01 (0.60 to 1.71)0.45 (0.25 to 0.80)**0.60 (0.28 to 1.27)0.67 (0.43 to 1.07)
Region in China0.40%0.40%0.40%0.30%
 East1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Central1.39 (0.97 to 1.99)1.34 (0.95 to 1.90)1.15 (0.72 to 1.83)1.25 (0.92 to 1.71)
 West0.98 (0.72 to 1.32)0.99 (0.74 to 1.33)0.86 (0.58 to 1.27)1.02 (0.79 to 1.31)
 Northeast1.28 (0.75 to 2.19)1.47 (0.90 to 2.41)1.50 (0.80 to 2.79)1.48 (0.96 to 2.29)
Regular exercise0.20%1.90%0.30%1.10%
 No1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Yes0.82 (0.61 to 1.09)0.49 (0.36 to 0.66)***0.75 (0.52 to 1.10)0.61 (0.47 to 0.78)***
Smoking00.20%0.50%0.20%
 No1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Yes1.13 (0.70 to 1.82)1.37 (0.89 to 2.12)1.79 (1.06 to 3.00)*1.35 (0.92 to 1.98)
Drinking0.20%0.10%1.00%0.40%
 No1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Yes1.58 (0.89 to 2.79)1.28 (0.72 to 2.30)2.72 (1.50 to 4.94)**1.82 (1.13 to 2.92)*
Attention to pandemic information0.10%0.10%00.10%
 Never/seldom1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Often/always1.34 (0.67 to 2.70)1.34 (0.69 to 2.60)0.97 (0.44 to 2.12)1.27 (0.72 to 2.22)
Attention to type of pandemic information1.20%2.40%2.90%1.80%
 Positive1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Neutral1.54 (1.18 to 2.01)**1.69 (1.31 to 2.19)***1.56 (1.10 to 2.21)*1.60 (1.28 to 2.00)***
 Negative2.10 (1.21 to 3.66)**3.30 (2.02 to 5.39)***4.69 (2.69 to 8.18)***2.45 (1.54 to 3.91)***
Did you receive negative feedback from your families or friends who join front-line work?1.60%1.20%2.80%1.30%
 No1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Yes3.33 (2.02 to 5.51)***2.95 (1.78 to 4.86)***4.82 (2.80 to 8.31)***2.91 (1.82 to 4.64)***
Anyone close to you suspected of being infected or confirmed to be infected?0.20%0.30%0.60%0.20%
 No1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Yes1.57 (0.95 to 2.58)1.57 (0.97 to 2.54)2.07 (1.17 to 3.65)*1.47 (0.96 to 2.27)
Did you participate in front-line work?1.40%0.30%1.10%1.00%
 No1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Yes2.11 (1.50 to 2.98)***1.43 (0.99 to 2.05)2.04 (1.33 to 3.13)**1.84 (1.36 to 2.49)***
Were you suspected of being infected or confirmed to be infected during front-line work?0.50%1.10%0.10%0.40%
 No1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Yes1.38 (0.70 to 2.71)0.60 (0.26 to 1.37)0.83 (0.34 to 2.04)1.31 (0.71 to 2.43)
If given a free choice, did you want to join front-line work?1.40%2.20%2.30%1.90%
 Willing1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Uncertain1.37 (1.02 to 1.85)*1.68 (1.28 to 2.22)***1.02 (0.68 to 1.54)1.58 (1.24 to 2.02)***
 Unwilling2.99 (1.78 to 5.04)***3.21 (1.93 to 5.31)***4.26 (2.44 to 7.46)***2.91 (1.81 to 4.65)***
  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

  • †GAD-7 score ≥10 indicates anxiety.

  • ‡PHQ-9 score ≥10 indicates depression.

  • §ISI score ≥15 indicates insomnia.

  • ¶Met the criteria in † or ‡ or §.

  • GAD-7, Seven-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale; ISI, Insomnia Severity Index; PHQ-9, Nine-Item Patient Health Questionnaire; ref, reference.