Table 2

Quantitative changes in diagnoses, coping ability, symptoms and family function in both participants

MeasureParticipant 1 (J)Participant 2 (K)
Clinical and diagnostic measures
 CGI-Anxiety Improvement rated by clinician2 (much improved)1 (very much improved)
 CGI-Anxiety severity5 (marked)3 (mild)4 (moderate)1 (not at all ill)
 KSADS-PL diagnoses (meeting full criteria)Separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobiaSpecific phobia*Separation anxiety disorderNo diagnoses
Coping Questionnaire: parent ratings of child’s ability to cope with the 6–7 targeted fears worked on
 Mean coping ability†2.574.86‡2.365.93‡
ECBQ: measures of temperament
 ECBQ Fear5.364.27‡3.642.30‡
 ECBQ Shyness3.754.923.922.92‡
Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: measures of social emotional problems and competencies
 Fear composite1.501.33‡1.330.67‡
 General anxiety0.250.13‡1.230.37‡
 Separation distress2.001.67‡2.001.33‡
 Inhibition to novelty1.001.601.600.60‡
 Negative emotionality0.541.001.150.46‡
 Mastery motivation1.672.00‡1.331.83‡
 Prosocial peer relations1.602.00‡1.002.00‡
 Social relatedness2.‡
Child Behavior Checklist: parent-rated symptoms (T-scores)
 Emotionally reactive50596250‡
 Anxious /depressed52636950‡
 Somatic complaints535370 (clinical)50‡
 Sleep problems70 (clinical)76 (clinical)6253‡
 Attention problems51535353
 Aggressive behaviours50506250‡
 Internalising475868 (clinical)37‡
 Total505565 (clinical)40‡
Achenbach Caregiver Report Form (CRF): daycare teacher-rated symptoms (T-scores)
 Emotionally reactive5056–§
 Anxious depressed5150
 Somatic complaints5050
 Attention problems5155
 Aggressive behaviours5962
Family Life Impairment Scale: measures negative and positive impact on family of child’s symptoms
 Global family impairment0.6250.125‡0.250‡
 Family restriction0.60‡0.20‡
 Family inflexibility00.50.50‡
 Social impairment/exhaustion110.250‡
 Parental growth10.80.80
Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale: measures parent’s symptoms (rated by mother for participant 1 and father for participant 2)
 Parental anxiety43‡00
 Parental depression10‡00
 Parental stress1711‡02
  • *Separation anxiety disorder and social phobia were in partial remission, that is, not meeting full criteria but still showing subthreshold symptoms.

  • †Rated on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1=not at all able to help himself/herself to 7=completely able.

  • ‡Indicates change in the direction of improvement.

  • §CRF not available because daycare worker did not read English well enough to complete it.

  • CGI, Clinician Global Impression; ECBQ, Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire; KSADS-PL, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime.