Table 2

Summary of the quality grade rating of different outcome indicators for the efficacy of rTMS for GAD

Outcome indicatorNumber of included casesHeterogeneityModel of analysisGroup effect valueEsimated value95% CIGRADE
I2 pZp
Treatment effects: reduction of anxiety symptoms using HAMA148175%<0.001Random effect10.61<0.001−0.68 (SMD)−0.89 to - 0.46Moderate
Acceptability: drop-outs for any reason, no of drop-outs13390%0.57Fixed effect0.570.571.14 (RR)0.72 to 1.82Moderate
Safety of rTMS: adverse effects, no of adverse events10730%0.49Fixed effect0.430.670.95 (RR)0.77 to 1.18Moderate
  • GAD, generalised anxiety disorder; GRADE, Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation; HAMA, Hamilton Anxiety Scale; RR, relative risk; rTMS, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; SMD, standardised mean difference.