Table 1

Characteristics of the included studies

Study (year)PlaceMean age, years
Inpatient or outpatientSize (n): (I/C)Study conditionsForm and dose of intervention*Personal recoveryInstrumentFollow-up†
Barretto et al,33 2009Brazil39.8/33.2Outpatient21
CBT versus BFIndividual; 20 sessions (first 15 sessions weekly, last 5 sessions every other week);
45 min per session
Quality of lifeQoL1
Barrowclough et al,34 2006UK38.83Outpatient113
CBT versus TAUGroup; 18 sessions over 6 months; 2 hours per sessionHopelessness; self-esteemBHS; RSE6
Bechdolf et al,35 2010Germany32.2/31.4Inpatient88
CBT versus PEGroup; 16 sessions in 8 weeks; 1–1.5 hours per sessionQuality of lifeMSQoL4
Birchwood et al,36 2014UK37.4
CBT versus TAUGroup; 25 sessions over 9 months; unclearHopelessnessBHS9
Edwards et al,37 2011Australia22.0/22.5
CBT versus TDZ
CBT versus CLZ
Group; twice weekly for 12 weeks, at least 15 sessions
(16 sessions; 19 sessions); unclear
Quality of lifeQLS3
Freeman et al,38 2014UK41.9/41.5Outpatient30
CBT versus SCIndividual; 6 sessions over 8 weeks; unclearSelf-confidence; well-being; relationships; self-esteem.BCSS; WEMWBS; SCS; RSQ1
Freeman et al,39 2015UK40.9/42.1Outpatient150
CBT versus SCIndividual; 6 sessions over 8 weeks; 1 hour per sessionWell-beingWEMWBS4
van der Gaag et al,40 2011Netherlands36.5/37.4Inpatient216
CBT versus TAUGroup; 26 sessions weekly; unclearQuality of lifeWHO-QoL
Garety et al,41 1994UK39.6/37.6Inpatient20
CBT versus WLIndividual; 16 sessions weekly over 6 months; unclearSelf-esteemRSE
Gumley et al,42 2006UK35.8/36.7Outpatient144
CBT versus TAUGroup; 5 sessions between entry and 12 weeks, 2–3 sessions per week delivered at the appearance of early signs of relapse; unclearSelf-esteemRSE
Halperin et al,43 2000AustraliaNRInpatient16
CBT versus WLGroup; 8 sessions over 8 weeks, delivered weekly; 2 hours per sessionQuality of lifeQ-LES-Q
Klingberg et al,44 2010Germany33/33Inpatient169
CBOS versus TAUGroup; 40 weekly sessions weekly, 1 hour per session; 4 fortnightly sessions, 2 hours per session; 6 weekly and 8 fortnightly sessionsRelationships
Kuipers et al,45 1997UK38.5/41.8Outpatient60
CBT versus TAUIndividual; 18 sessions fortnightly; 1 hour per sessionHopelessness; self-esteemBHS, SCQ
Lysaker et al,46 2005USA46.4/49.7Outpatient50
CBT versus SSGroup; 8 sessions fortnightly; 40 min per sessionHopelessness; self-esteemBHS, RSE
Mortan et al,47 2011Manisa44.0/40.6Inpatient12
CBT versus TAUGroup;10 sessions fortnightly; 1.5 hours per sessionHopelessness; self-esteemBHS; RSE7
Penn et al,48 2009USA41.7/39.6Outpatient65
CBT versus STGroup; 12 weekly sessions; 1 hour per sessionSelf-esteemRSE9
Premkumar et al,49 2011UK36.1/39.7Outpatient43
CBT versus SCGroup; 19 sessions, weekly/fortnightly; unclearSelf-esteemRSE
Shawyer et al,50 2012Australia40.0/39.6Outpatient44
CBT versus BFGroup;15 sessions, weekly; 50 min per sessionQuality of lifeQ-LES-Q3
Steel et al,51 2016UK43.8/40.7Outpatient61
CBT versus TAUGroup; 16 sessions over 6 months; unclearQuality of lifeQLS6
Wykes et al,52 2005UK39.7/39.7Outpatient95
CBT versus TAUGroup; 7 sessions over 10 weeks; unclearSelf-esteemRSE4
Tsiachristas et al, 56 2018UK40.4/42.9Outpatient43
CBT versus SCIndividual; 8 sessions over 12 weeks; unclearQuality of lifeEQ-5D-5L3
Wood et al,57 2018UK32.07/35.58Inpatient30
CBT versus PEGroup; 2 sessions over 2 weeks’ period; 120 min per sessionPersonal recovery; self-esteemQPR; SERS1
Morrison et al,53 2018aUK23.2/24.4Outpatient49
CBT versus ADGroup; 26 sessions over 6 months; unclearPersonal recovery; quality of lifeQPR; WHO-QoL12
Morrison et al,54 2018bUK42.8/42.2Inpatient475
CBT versus TAUGroup; 26 sessions over 9 months; 60 min per sessionPersonal recovery; quality of lifeQPR; EQ-5D-5L8
Pot-Kolder et al,55 2018Netherlands36.5/39.5Outpatient116
CBT versus WLIndividual ;16 sessions over 8–12 weeks; 60 min per sessionQuality of lifeMSAQoL3
  • *The information extracted from the primary study were group CBT/individual CBT; number and frequency of CBT sessions; and session length.

  • †The follow-up time was from the endpoint of CBT treatment.

  • AD, Antipsychotic drugs; BCSS, Brief Core Schema Scales; BF, befriending control group; BHS, Beck Hopelessness Scale; C, control group; CBOS, cognitive–behavioural oriented services; CBT, cognitive–behavioural therapy; CLZ, clozapine; EQ-5D-5L, EuroQol 5 Dimensions 5 Levels;I, intervention group;MSAQoL, Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life; MSQoL, Modular System for Quality of Life; NR, Not Report; PE, patient psychoeducation;Q-LES-Q, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire; QLS, Quality of Life scale; QPR, Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery; QoL, quality of life scale; RSE, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; RSQ, Robson Self-Concept Questionnaire; SC, standard care;SCQ, Self Concept Questionnaire ; SCS, Social Comparison Scale; SERS, Self-Esteem Rating Scale; SG, support group;SS, standard support; ST, standard treatment; TAU, treatment as usual; TDZ, thioridazine; WEMWBS, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale; WL, waiting list group.