Table 1

Systematic reviews on efficacy of TMS in depression

Serial NumberSystematic reviewObjective of the systematic reviewStudy frameMajor findings
1Leggett et al62Efficacy of rTMS in treatment-resistant depressionTotal studies evaluated: 70 in adults and 3 in youths
Time frame: publications from inception until 10 January 2014
  • True rTMS is significantly better than sham rTMS.

  • There is no difference between UL versus BL, HF versus LF, low intensity versus high intensity and TMS versus ECT.

2Iimori et al63Cognitive effects of rTMS in depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s diseaseTotal studies evaluated: 31 (15 in depression, 11 in schizophrenia, 5 in Alzheimer’s disease)
Time frame: 1996–2018 (published in PubMed)
Some procognitive effect of rTMS in depression, when delivered over the prefrontal cortex
3Ilieva et al64Effect of rTMS on executive function in depressionTotal studies evaluated: 12
Time frame: all RCTs (blind, sham controlled) using HF rTMS on left DLPFC in depression
Improvement of executive function by rTMS correlates with improvement in mood symptoms.
4Razza et al65Moderators of response to rTMS in depressionTotal studies evaluated: 61
Time frame: from inception to 15 March 2017
Large placebo effect of rTMS in depression.
Low placebo response seen with high treatment-resistant depression.
5Shen et al66Effect of rTMS in poststroke depressionTotal studies evaluated: 22 RCTs
Time frame: from inception to 20 August 2016
Beneficial role of rTMS in poststroke depression
6McIntyre et al67Effectiveness of rTMS in vascular depression and poststroke depressionTotal studies evaluated: 5
Time frame: from January 1980 to June 2016
Short-term beneficial role of rTMS in poststroke and vascular depression
7Nordenskjold et al68Evidence of deep TMS in depressionTotal studies evaluated: 1
Time frame: from inception to November 2014
Evidence regarding efficacy of deep TMS in depression is inadequate.
  • BL, bilateral; DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; ECT, electroconvulsive therapy; HF, high frequency; LF, low frequency; RCT, randomised controlled trial;TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation; UL, unilateral; rTMS, repetitive TMS.