Table 1

Mendelian randomisation results of causal effects between gut microbiome and depressive symptoms

Gut microbiota (exposure)Depressive symptoms (outcome)Number of SNPsβ (95% CI)P
Genus.Bifidobacterium Anhedonia19–0.03 (–0.05 to –0.02)<0.001
Phylum.ActinobacteriaAnhedonia19–0.04 (–0.06 to –0.02)<0.001
Genus.Bifidobacterium Depressed mood19–0.03 (–0.05 to –0.02)<0.001
Phylum.ActinobacteriaDepressed mood19–0.03 (–0.05 to –0.03)0.001
Family.Family XIChanges in appetite80.03 (0.01 to 0.04)<0.001
Phylum.ActinobacteriaChanges in appetite19–0.04 (–0.06 to –0.01)0.005
Family.BifidobacteriaceaeSuicidality20–0.01 (–0.02 to –0.01)0.001
Phylum.ActinobacteriaSuicidality19–0.02 (–0.03 to –0.01)0.001
Phylum.CyanobacteriaConcentration problems80.03 (0.01 to 0.05)0.005
Phylum.VerrucomicrobiaPsychomotor changes12–0.03 (–0.04 to –0.01)<0.001
  • β, the effect size of the exposure on depressive symptoms, the effect size was derived by IVW.

  • IVW, inverse variance weighted; SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms.