Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants with diabetes by loneliness score

CharacteristicsLoneliness score
012Statistic*P value*†
Number of participants, n (%)11 738 (61.9)5523 (29.1)1711 (9.0)
Age, years59.8 (7.0)59.3 (7.1)57.9 (7.2)99.7<0.001
Female sex, n (%)4324 (36.8)2107 (38.2)659 (38.5)3.80.150
White ethnicity, n (%)10 471 (89.2)4693 (85.0)1509 (88.2)63.4<0.001
Townsend deprivation index–0.9 (3.2)–0.1 (3.5)0.4 (3.6)308.8<0.001
BMI, kg/m2 30.7 (5.4)31.3 (5.8)32.2 (6.1)92.3<0.001
Diabetes duration, years8.3 (10.3)8.5 (10.5)8.5 (10.2)2.20.141
Current smoker, n (%)1055 (9.0)687 (12.4)672 (39.3)102.9<0.001
Current drinker, n (%)10 151 (86.5)4579 (82.9)1390 (81.2)55.0<0.001
Physical active, n (%)‡6340 (54.0)2645 (47.9)765 (44.7)89.9<0.001
Healthy diet score2.7 (1.3)2.6 (1.3)2.4 (1.3)92.5<0.001
Depression score0.4 (1.0)1.1 (1.5)2.2 (1.8)2969.3<0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 93.7 (13.6)93.1 (13.9)93.2 (14.0)54.4<0.001
Antihypertensive medication, n (%)7065 (60.2)3344 (60.5)1015 (59.3)0.70.698
Cholesterol-lowering medication, n (%)8778 (74.8)4060 (73.5)1265 (73.9)9.80.016
Diabetes medication, n (%)8158 (69.5)3945 (71.4)1246 (72.8)12.20.002
  • Values are means (SD) for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables.

  • *F values for continuous variables and χ2 values for categorical values.

  • †P values were calculated by χ2 test for categorical variables and general linear models for continuous variables after adjusting for age (except age) for baseline characteristics.

  • ‡Physical activity was calculated as minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity or an equivalent combination per week; according to the guideline, being physically active was defined as engaging in >150 min of moderate-intensity activity weekly, >75 min of vigorous-intensity activity or a comparable mix of the two.

  • BMI, Body Mass Index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.