Table 3

Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of individual loneliness factors for chronic kidney disease among patients with diabetes at baseline

Loneliness factorsChronic kidney disease
Cases (n)/totalModel 1Model 2Model 3
Feeling lonely
 0813/14 2541 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 1299/43611.32 (1.15 to 1.51)1.25 (1.09 to 1.44)1.22 (1.04 to 1.43)
Confiding in someone close
 0783/13 6361 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 1301/45841.16 (1.01 to 1.32)1.13 (0.99 to 1.29)1.06 (0.91 to 1.24)
  • Model 1 was adjusted for sex, age, race and Townsend deprivation index.

  • Model 2: Model 1+physical activity, healthy diet score, smoking, alcohol use and body mass index.

  • Model 3: Model 2+estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes duration, the use of diabetes medication, cholesterol-lowering medication, antihypertensive medication and depression score.