Table 2

Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of Loneliness and Social Isolation Scales for chronic kidney disease among patients with diabetes at baseline

Chronic kidney disease
Cases (n)/totalModel 1Model 2Model 3
Loneliness Scale
 0647/11 7381 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 1360/55231.21 (1.06 to 1.38)1.16 (1.02 to 1.33)1.11 (0.95 to 1.28)
 2120/17111.42 (1.17 to 1.73)1.34 (1.09 to 1.63)1.25 (1.00 to 1.57)
 P-trend<0.001<0.0010.019
Social Isolation Scale
 0472/86311 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 1488/79141.14 (1.08 to 1.18)1.03 (0.97 to 1.26)1.01 (0.88 to 1.17)
 2151/21931.32 (1.09 to 1.59)1.27 (1.05 to 1.53)1.14 (0.92 to 1.40)
 316/2341.35 (0.82 to 2.23)1.22 (0.73 to 2.05)1.14 (0.65 to 1.99)
 P-trend0.0020.0130.115
  • Model 1 was adjusted for sex, age, race and Townsend deprivation index.

  • Model 2: Model 1+physical activity, healthy diet score, smoking, alcohol use and body mass index.

  • Model 3: Model 2+estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes duration, the use of diabetes medication, cholesterol-lowering medication, antihypertensive medication and depression score.