Table 2

Lifetime prevalence of psychopathologies among offspring of parents with (O-BD) and without bipolar disorder (O-control) in childhood and adolescence

O-controlO-BDUnadjusted OR (95% CI)/p valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)*
Children (offspring <12 years old)n=102n=103
Age, mean (SD)8.81 (1.76)8.41 (1.69)0.086NA
Female, n (%)47 (46.53)46 (44.66)0.78NA
Pre/early puberty, n (%)102 (100.00)103 (100.00)NANA
Mental disorders, n (%)
 Any mental disorders26 (25.49)41 (39.81)1.93 (1.05 to 3.55) 1.91 (1.00 to 3.63)
 Mood disorders0 (0.00)4 (3.92)0.044 †NA
 Depressive disorders0 (0.00)3 (2.94)0.082†NA
 Bipolar disorders0 (0.00)2 (1.96)0.16†NA
 Psychotic disorders0 (0.00)1 (0.98)0.32†NA
 Anxiety disorders3 (2.94)5 (4.85)1.68 (0.39 to 7.30)1.54 (0.31 to 7.72)
 Social anxiety1 (0.98)2 (1.94)2.00 (0.18 to 22.51)1.37 (0.64 to 2.96) ‡
 Generalised anxiety disorder0 (0.00)1 (0.97)0.320†NA
 Post-traumatic stress disorder0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Elimination disorders1 (0.98)3 (2.91)3.03 (0.31 to 29.43)2.73 (0.28 to 27.16) ‡
 Eating disorders0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Behavioural disorders22 (21.78)36 (34.95)1.93 (1.02 to 3.64)1.92 (0.96 to 3.82)
 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder22 (21.57)33 (32.04)1.71 (0.91 to 3.25)1.65 (0.83 to 3.28)
 Tic disorders5 (4.95)6 (5.83)1.19 (0.31 to 4.50)1.04 (0.28 to 3.89)
 Autism spectrum disorders1 (0.99)1 (0.97)0.98 (0.06 to 15.95)1.38 (0.07 to 26.11)
 Substance use disorders0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Suicide8 (7.92)6 (5.88)0.73 (0.24 to 2.18)0.60 (0.20 to 1.87) ‡
 Non-fatal self-harm2 (1.98)4 (3.92)2.02 (0.36 to 11.30)1.91 (0.32 to 11.44)
Mental symptoms, n (%)
 Any mental symptoms42 (41.18)60 (58.25)1.99 (1.16 to 3.43) 2.12 (1.21 to 3.72)
 Mood symptoms5 (4.90)8 (7.84)1.65 (0.53 to 5.16)2.18 (0.59 to 7.96)
 Psychotic symptoms0 (0.00)1 (0.98)0.32†NA
 Anxiety symptoms15 (14.71)18 (17.48)1.23 (0.58 to 2.58)1.20 (0.57 to 2.55)
 Trauma and stress-related symptoms0 (0.00)1 (0.98)0.32†NA
 Elimination symptoms2 (1.96)8 (7.77)4.21 (0.89 to 19.96)4.13 (0.81 to 22.01)
 Eating symptoms1 (0.98)0 (0.00)0.32†NA
 Behavioural symptoms31 (30.69)50 (48.54)2.13 (1.19 to 3.82) 2.13 (1.14 to 3.95)
 Tics5 (4.95)9 (8.74)1.84 (0.53 to 6.37)1.64 (0.47 to 5.67)
 Autistic symptoms3 (2.97)2 (1.94)0.65 (0.11 to 3.98)1.21 (0.17 to 8.79)‡
 Substance use0 (0.00)1 (0.98)0.320†NA
Adolescence (offspring ≥12 years old)n=100n=88
Age, mean (SD)14.32 (2.05)15.94 (2.68)<0.001NA
Female, n (%)52 (52.00)42 (47.73)0.560NA
Pre/early puberty, n (%)54 (54.00)26 (29.89)0.001NA
Mental disorders, n (%)
 Any mental disorders27 (27.00)36 (40.91)1.87 (1.00 to 3.50)1.46 (0.64 to 3.33)
 Mood disorders7 (7.00)18 (20.93)3.52 (1.39 to 8.92)2.60 (0.69 to 9.78)
 Depressive disorders7 (7.00)18 (20.93)3.52 (1.39 to 8.92)2.60 (0.69 to 9.78)
 Bipolar disorders1 (1.00)3 (3.41)3.49 (0.36 to 34.36)1.35 (0.03 to 67.55)
 Psychotic disorders1 (1.00)2 (2.27)2.30 (0.21 to 25.69)1.26 (0.26 to 6.08)
 Anxiety disorders7 (7.00)19 (21.84)3.71 (1.46 to 9.45)2.86 (0.92 to 8.96)
 Social anxiety2 (2.00)10 (11.36)6.28 (1.36 to 29.12) 7.49 (1.33 to 42.20)
 Generalised anxiety disorder3 (3.00)10 (11.36)4.15 (1.11 to 15.51)3.54 (0.57 to 22.16)
 Post-traumatic stress disorder0 (0.00)2 (2.27)0.13†NA
 Elimination disorders0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Eating disorders0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Behavioural disorders18 (18.00)9 (11.11)0.57 (0.24 to 1.35)0.81 (0.22 to 2.93)
 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder17 (17.00)9 (11.11)0.61 (0.26 to 1.46)0.99 (0.29 to 3.45)
 Tic disorders2 (2.00)5 (6.17)3.22 (0.61 to 17.06)3.71 (0.23 to 60.91)
 Autism spectrum disorders0 (0.00)1 (1.20)0.27†NA
 Substance use disorders0 (0.00)3 (3.41)0.063†NA
 Suicide11 (11.58)26 (32.10)3.61 (1.69 to 7.72)2.26 (0.80 to 6.42)
 Non-fatal self-harm6 (6.32)8 (9.64)1.58 (0.53 to 4.75)0.86 (0.17 to 4.25)
Mental symptoms, n (%)
 Any mental symptoms45 (45.00)56 (65.64)2.14 (1.16 to 3.94)1.78 (0.83 to 3.83)
 Mood symptoms16 (16.00)31 (36.05)2.96 (1.48 to 5.91) 3.00 (1.14 to 7.92)
 Psychotic symptoms3 (3.00)3 (3.41)1.14 (0.23 to 5.68)1.57 (0.41 to 5.97)
 Anxiety symptoms19 (19.00)29 (33.33)2.13 (1.08 to 4.22)2.35 (0.98 to 5.65)
 Trauma and stress-related symptoms5 (5.00)5 (5.68)1.15 (0.32 to 4.09)0.84 (0.18 to 3.93)
 Elimination symptoms0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Eating symptoms3 (3.00)0 (0.00)0.10†NA
 Behavioural symptoms25 (25.00)18 (22.22)0.86 (0.42 to 1.74)0.80 (0.29 to 2.23)
 Tics2 (2.00)6 (7.41)3.92 (0.72 to 21.42)4.04 (0.30 to 54.40)
 Autistic symptoms0 (0.00)1 (1.20)0.27†NA
 Substance use0 (0.00)4 (4.55)0.032†NA
  • Because missing data were not imputed, the denominators used to calculate the percentages in this table are the valid data. Significant adjusted OR values (with their 95% CIs) are highlighted in bold.

  • *Adjusted for age at recruitment, sex and region.

  • †Mann-Whitney U test was applied.

  • ‡Logistic regression was applied.

  • NA, not applicable.