Table 1

Demographics and lifetime prevalence of psychopathologies of offspring of parents with (O-BD) and without bipolar disorder (O-control)

O-control (n=202)O-BD (n=191)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)/p valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)*
Demographics
 Age, mean (SD)11.54 (3.35)11.88 (4.36)0.41NA
 Female, n (%)99 (49.25)88 (46.07)0.52NA
 BMI, mean (SD)18.35 (3.82)18.15 (3.81)0.66NA
 Pre/early puberty, n (%)155 (77.11)129 (67.89)0.051NA
 Region of recruitment, n (%)<0.001NA
 Hong Kong SAR, n (%)123 (60.89)54 (28.27)NA
 Mainland China, n (%)79 (39.11)137 (71.73)NA
 Two-parent family, n (%)140 (99.29)124 (90.51)0.96NA
Proband characteristics, n (%)
 Education (college and above)81 (52.26)52 (37.68)0.045NA
 Employment136 (87.74)87 (64.93)<0.001NA
 Current (hypo)mania (YMRS >12)0 (0.00)5 (3.50)0.010†NA
 Current depression (MADRS >6)24 (12.83)54 (39.13)<0.001NA
Mental disorders, n (%)
 Any mental disorders53 (26.24)77 (40.31)1.90 (1.21 to 2.97) 1.87 (1.14 to 3.10)
 Mood disorders7 (3.47)22 (11.70)3.69 (1.54 to 8.88) 4.68 (1.30 to 16.86)
 Depressive disorders7 (3.47)21 (11.17)3.50 (1.45 to 8.47) 3.99 (1.11 to 14.34)
 Bipolar disorders1 (0.50)5 (2.63)5.43 (0.63 to 46.65)7.12 (0.38 to 131.95)
 Psychotic disorders1 (0.50)3 (1.58)3.23 (0.33 to 31.22)3.68 (0.38 to 36.00)
 Anxiety disorders10 (4.95)24 (12.63)2.78 (1.26 to 6.11)2.45 (0.97 to 6.23)
 Social anxiety3 (1.49)12 (6.28)4.45 (1.24 to 15.92) 4.70 (1.21 to 18.18)
 Generalised anxiety disorder3 (1.49)11 (5.76)4.05 (1.12 to 14.67)4.07 (0.79 to 21.03)
 Post-traumatic stress disorder0 (0.00)2 (1.05)0.14†NA
 Elimination disorders1 (0.50)3 (1.63)3.33 (0.34 to 32.26)2.77 (0.28 to 27.75)‡
 Eating disorders0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Behavioural disorders40 (19.80)45 (24.46)1.30 (0.79 to 2.14)1.41 (0.79 to 2.50)
 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder39 (19.31)42 (22.83)1.24 (0.75 to 2.04)1.33 (0.75 to 2.34)
 Tic disorders7 (3.48)11 (5.98)1.76 (0.63 to 4.95)1.62 (0.46 to 5.71)
 Autism spectrum disorders1 (0.50)2 (1.07)2.16 (0.20 to 23.86)4.95 (0.40 to 60.65)‡
 Substance use disorders0 (0.00)3 (1.59)0.073†NA
 Suicide19 (9.69)32 (17.49)1.97 (1.07 to 3.63)1.26 (0.60 to 2.63)
 Non-fatal self-harm8 (4.08)12 (6.49)1.63 (0.66 to 4.04)1.20 (0.38 to 3.76)
Mental symptoms, n (%)
 Any mental symptoms87 (43.07)116 (60.73)2.04 (1.36 to 3.08) 2.14 (1.37 to 3.33)
 Mood symptoms21 (10.40)39 (20.74)2.24 (1.26 to 3.97) 2.59 (1.24 to 5.44)
 Psychotic symptoms3 (1.49)4 (2.11)1.43 (0.32 to 6.41)1.98 (0.45 to 8.75)
 Anxiety symptoms34 (16.83)47 (24.74)1.64 (0.99 to 2.70)1.55 (0.89 to 2.72)
 Trauma and stress-related symptoms5 (2.48)6 (3.16)1.29 (0.39 to 4.29)1.20 (0.30 to 4.73)
 Elimination symptoms2 (0.99)8 (4.34)4.57 (0.97 to 21.63)4.08 (0.83 to 20.17)‡
 Eating symptoms4 (1.98)0 (0.00)0.051†NA
 Behavioural symptoms56 (27.86)68 (36.96)1.53 (0.99 to 2.38)1.60 (0.97 to 2.63)
 Tics7 (3.48)15 (8.15)2.46 (0.90 to 6.70)2.31 (0.71 to 7.54)
 Autistic symptoms3 (1.50)3 (1.61)1.08 (0.22 to 5.39)1.93 (0.34 to 10.88)‡
 Substance use0 (0.00)5 (2.63)0.021†NA
  • Because missing data were not imputed, the denominators used to calculate the percentages in this table are the valid data. Significant adjusted OR values (with their 95% CIs) are highlighted in bold.

  • *Adjusted for age at recruitment, sex and region.

  • †Mann-Whitney U test was applied.

  • ‡Logistic regression was applied.

  • BMI, body mass index; MADRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale; NA, not applicable; SAR, Special Administrative Region; YMRS, Young Mania Rating Scale.