Table 4

Lifetime prevalence of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders/symptoms among offspring of parents with (O-BD) and without bipolar disorder (O-control) in childhood and adolescence

O-controlO-BDUnadjusted OR (95% CI)/p valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)*
Children (offspring <12 years old)n=95n=98
Age, mean (SD)8.84 (1.78)8.44 (1.71)0.110NA
Female, n (%)44 (46.81)43 (43.88)0.68NA
Pre/early puberty, n (%)95 (100.00)98 (100.00)NANA
Sleep and circadian rhythm disorders, n (%)
 Any sleep and circadian rhythm disorders9 (9.47)10 (10.20)1.09 (0.42 to 2.81)1.07 (0.40 to 2.87)
 Delayed sleep phase disorder0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Advanced sleep phase disorder0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Insomnia3 (3.16)4 (4.08)1.31 (0.28 to 6.04)1.25 (0.27 to 5.83)
 Restless legs syndrome4 (4.21)3 (3.06)0.72 (0.16 to 3.29)0.62 (0.12 to 3.25)
 Nightmare3 (3.16)5 (5.49)1.78 (0.41 to 7.70)1.92 (0.43 to 8.49)
Sleep and circadian rhythm symptoms, n (%)
 Any sleep and circadian rhythm symptoms21 (22.11)22 (23.45)1.02 (0.51 to 2.04)1.10 (0.53 to 2.26)
 Delayed sleep phase symptoms0 (0.00)1 (1.02)0.32†NA
 Advanced sleep phase symptoms0 (0.00)0 (0.00)NANA
 Insomnia symptoms12 (12.63)13 (13.27)1.06 (0.46 to 2.45)1.14 (0.47 to 2.73)
 Restless legs syndrome symptoms5 (5.26)3 (3.06)0.57 (0.13 to 2.45)0.48 (0.10 to 2.38)
 Nightmare symptoms9 (9.47)11 (12.09)1.31 (0.52 to 3.32)1.50 (0.58 to 3.87)
Adolescence (offspring ≥12 years old)n=99n=81
Age, mean (SD)14.30 (2.06)16.05 (2.75)<0.001NA
Female, n (%)52 (52.53)38 (46.91)0.45NA
Pre/early puberty, n (%)53 (53.54)25 (31.25)0.003NA
Sleep and circadian rhythm disorders, n (%)
 Any sleep and circadian rhythm disorders23 (23.23)19 (24.46)1.01 (0.50 to 2.07)1.07 (0.43 to 2.67)
 Delayed sleep phase disorder2 (2.02)10 (12.50)6.93 (1.44 to 33.42)3.25 (0.47 to 22.70)
 Advanced sleep phase disorder1 (1.01)0 (0.00)0.37†NA
 Insomnia11 (11.11)8 (9.88)0.88 (0.31 to 2.46)0.77 (0.16 to 3.59)
 Restless legs syndrome3 (3.03)2 (2.47)0.81 (0.13 to 4.89)0.60 (0.02 to 18.64)
 Nightmare13 (13.13)3 (3.80)0.26 (0.07 to 0.94)0.41 (0.07 to 2.40)
Sleep and circadian rhythm symptoms, n (%)
 Any sleep and circadian rhythm symptoms32 (32.32)27 (33.33)1.05 (0.56 to 1.95)1.30 (0.61 to 2.80)
 Delayed sleep phase symptoms5 (5.05)16 (20.00)4.70 (1.63 to 13.56) 3.83 (1.11 to 13.16)
 Advanced sleep phase symptoms1 (1.01)0 (0.00)0.37†NA
 Insomnia symptoms19 (19.19)12 (14.81)0.73 (0.32 to 1.66)0.86 (0.29 to 2.55)
 Restless legs syndrome symptoms4 (4.04)2 (2.47)0.60 (0.11 to 3.32)0.53 (0.02 to 12.24)
 Nightmare symptoms19 (19.19)4 (5.06)0.23 (0.07 to 0.68)0.37 (0.09 to 1.57)
  • Because missing data were not imputed, the denominators used to calculate the percentages in this table are the valid data. Significant adjusted OR value (with its 95% CI) is highlighted in bold.

  • *Adjustment for age at the recruitment, sex and region.

  • †Mann-Whitney U test was applied.

  • NA, not applicable.