Table 3

Lifetime prevalence of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders/symptoms among offspring of parents with (O-BD) and without bipolar disorder (O-control)

O-control (n=194)O-BD (n=179)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)/p valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)*
Age, mean (SD)11.63 (3.34)11.85 (4.39)0.59NA
Female, n (%)96 (49.74)81 (45.51)0.41NA
Pre/early puberty, n (%)147 (76.17)123 (69.49)0.15NA
Sleep and circadian rhythm disorders, n (%)
 Any sleep and circadian rhythm disorders32 (16.49)29 (16.20)0.98 (0.56 to 1.72)1.04 (0.54 to 2.01)
 Delayed sleep phase disorder2 (1.03)10 (5.62)5.71 (1.21 to 27.04)3.06 (0.44 to 21.47)
 Advanced sleep phase disorder1 (0.52)0 (0.00)0.34†NA
 Insomnia14 (7.22)12 (6.74)0.93 (0.40 to 2.14)0.86 (0.30 to 2.42)
 Restless legs syndromes7 (3.61)5 (2.81)0.77 (0.24 to 2.45)0.65 (0.15 to 2.91)
 Nightmare16 (8.25)8 (4.73)0.55 (0.23 to 1.31)0.88 (0.33 to 2.36)
Sleep and circadian rhythm symptoms, n (%)
 Any sleep and circadian rhythm symptoms53 (27.32)49 (27.37)1.00 (0.63 to 1.59)1.21 (0.74 to 1.98)
 Delayed sleep phase symptoms5 (2.58)17 (9.55)3.99 (1.42 to 11.19) 4.04 (1.23 to 13.28)
 Advanced sleep phase symptoms1 (0.52)0 (0.00)0.34†NA
 Insomnia symptoms31 (15.98)25 (14.04)0.86 (0.49 to 1.52)0.93 (0.50 to 1.74)
 Restless legs syndrome symptoms9 (4.64)5 (2.81)0.59 (0.20 to 1.79)0.48 (0.12 to 1.87)
 Nightmare symptoms28 (14.43)15 (8.88)0.58 (0.30 to 1.11)0.92 (0.47 to 1.79)
  • Because missing data were not imputed, the denominators used to calculate the percentages in this table are the valid data. Significant adjusted OR value (with its 95% CI) is highlighted in bold.

  • *Adjustment for age at recruitment, sex and region.

  • †Mann-Whitney U test was applied.

  • NA, not applicable.