Table 1

Characteristics of participants included without prior all-cause dementia at baseline

Baseline characteristicsNo new-onset all-cause dementia or death (n=14 938)New-onset all-cause dementia (n=1263)New-onset all-cause death (n=3221)χ²P value
Age, year62.0 (56.0–71.0)76.0 (69.0–82.0)76.0 (68.0–83.0)3310.52<0.001
Sex, n (%)65.23<0.001
 Men6086 (40.7)491 (38.9)1552 (48.2)
 Women8852 (59.3)772 (61.1)1669 (51.8)
Race, n (%)81.46<0.001
 White/Caucasian10 593 (70.9)978 (77.4)2502 (77.7)
 Black or others4302 (28.8)284 (22.5)717 (22.3)
 Missing43 (0.3)1 (0.1)2 (0.1)
Education, n (%)305.39<0.001
 Below high school3223 (21.6)411 (32.5)990 (30.7)
 High school4159 (27.8)377 (29.8)1053 (32.7)
 College3903 (26.1)247 (19.6)702 (21.8)
 University or above3653 (24.5)228 (18.1)476 (14.8)
Household income, n (%)787.57<0.001
 Bottom tertile4357 (29.2)578 (45.8)1533 (47.6)
 Middle tertile4906 (32.8)452 (35.8)1159 (36.0)
 Top tertile5675 (38.0)233 (18.4)529 (16.4)
Marital status, n (%)301.26<0.001
 Married9999 (66.9)699 (55.3)1671 (51.9)
 Single4934 (33.0)564 (44.7)1549 (48.1)
 Missing5 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (0.0)
Smoking history, n (%)147.89<0.001
 Never smoking6724 (45.0)566 (44.8)1076 (33.4)
 Ever smoking8140 (54.5)689 (54.6)2123 (65.9)
 Missing74 (0.5)8 (0.6)22 (0.7)
Drinking history, n (%)423.79<0.001
 Never drinking5790 (38.8)733 (58.0)1780 (55.3)
 Ever drinking9148 (61.2)530 (42.0)1441 (44.7)
Vigorous exercise, n (%)645.57<0.001
 Never7516 (50.3)804 (63.7)2368 (73.5)
 ≤1 day per week3219 (21.5)198 (15.7)396 (12.3)
 >1 day per week4180 (28.0)253 (20.0)445 (13.8)
 Missing23 (0.2)8 (0.6)12 (0.4)
Body weight index, n (%)215.92<0.001
 Normal3715 (24.9)487 (38.6)1121 (34.8)
 Abnormal10 936 (73.2)755 (59.8)2045 (63.5)
 Missing287 (1.9)21 (1.7)55 (1.7)
Number of chronic diseases, n (%)1123.70<0.001
 02987 (20.0)99 (7.8)167 (5.2)
 14140 (27.7)239 (18.9)409 (12.7)
 2 or more7810 (52.3)925 (73.2)2645 (82.1)
 Missing1 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Cognitive z scores in 20100.15 (−0.58 to 0.73)−0.52 (−1.25 to 0.21)−0.13 (−0.86 to 0.57)475.77<0.001
Depressive z scores in 2010−0.25 (−0.74 to 0.25)−0.25 (−0.74 to 0.75)−0.25 (−0.74 to 0.75)295.49<0.001