Table 2

Associations of joint trajectories of depressive symptoms and cognitive function from 1996 to 2010 with new-onset all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and all-cause death from 2010 to 2020: subdistribution hazard regression

Joint trajectoriesAll-cause dementiaAlzheimer's diseaseAll-cause death
Depressive symptomCognitive functionsHR (95% CI)
NoVery goodReferenceReferenceReference
NoGood1.00 (0.74 to 1.36)1.21 (0.68 to 2.17)1.00 (0.86 to 1.17)
NoSlightly good1.37 (1.01 to 1.85)2.22 (1.25 to 3.94)1.07 (0.91 to 1.25)
NoSlightly poor2.23 (1.62 to 3.07)3.37 (1.87 to 6.08)1.31 (1.10 to 1.56)
NoPoor cognitive3.13 (1.87 to 5.22)5.19 (2.29 to 11.76)1.88 (1.41 to 2.52)
NoGood and rapid decrease4.47 (2.99 to 6.67)6.82 (3.42 to 13.60)1.84 (1.43 to 2.36)
No-increase-decreaseSlightly good1.91 (1.35 to 2.70)2.70 (1.43 to 5.09)1.23 (1.02 to 1.50)
LowGood1.21 (0.82 to 1.78)1.90 (0.96 to 3.76)1.18 (0.97 to 1.43)
LowSlightly poor3.18 (2.21 to 4.58)4.79 (2.53 to 9.07)1.68 (1.36 to 2.08)
Low-increase-decreaseSlightly good2.34 (1.56 to 3.52)2.97 (1.42 to 6.22)1.39 (1.10 to 1.76)
DecreaseSlightly good1.53 (0.96 to 2.44)1.69 (0.71 to 4.02)1.39 (1.10 to 1.75)
EmergingSlightly good1.73 (1.14 to 2.63)2.15 (0.99 to 4.66)1.57 (1.26 to 1.96)
HighGood1.82 (1.09 to 3.04)1.63 (0.59 to 4.51)1.24 (0.93 to 1.64)
HighSlightly good3.06 (1.91 to 4.91)2.78 (1.11 to 6.95)1.54 (1.16 to 2.06)
HighSlightly poor4.44 (2.94 to 6.69)10.22 (5.34 to 19.55)1.52 (1.15 to 2.02)
  • All models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, household income, marital status, smoking history, drinking history, vigorous exercise, weight status and number of chronic diseases.

  • CI, confidence interval; sHR, subdistribution hazard ratio.