Table 1

Effectiveness of different cognitive assessments for detecting mild cognitive impairment (clinical diagnosis) and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

InstrumentsSubjectsType of studyAuthor (year)Results
Paper-and-pencil tests
MMSE280 NC, 264 MCICross-sectionalChen et al (2016)10 AUC=0.72–0.80 to screen for patients with MCI according to different education levels.
431 NC, 285 MCICross-sectionalPan et al (2022)12 AUC=0.76–0.82 to screen for patients with MCI according to different education levels.
MoCA-B280 NC, 264 MCICross-sectionalChen et al (2016)10 AUC=0.90–0.95 to screen for patients with MCI according to different education levels.
520 NC, 666 MCICross-sectionalHuang et al (2018)11 AUC=0.81–0.89 to screen for patients with MCI according to different education levels.
431 NC, 285 MCICross-sectionalPan et al (2022)12 AUC=0.90–0.95 to screen for patients with MCI according to different education levels.
ACE-III431 NC, 285 MCICross-sectionalPan et al (2022)12 AUC=0.89–0.95 to screen for patients with MCI according to different education levels.
LASSI-L34 MCI (Aβ+), 25 MCI (Aβ−)Cross-sectionalLoewenstein et al (2018)16 AUC=0.77 to detect MCI with increased amyloid load.
CaST59 MCI (Aβ+), 53 MCI (Aβ−)Cross-sectionalCui (2023)17 AUC=0.73 to detect MCI with increased amyloid load.
Metacognition assessment
FOK and MARS44 aMCI, 29 NC4-year follow-upBastin et al (2021)26 AD converters had a higher MARS score than non-converters and controls.
JOL105 NCCross-sectionald'Oleire Uquillas et al (2020)28 Greater levels of entorhinal tau deposition were associated with overestimation of memory performance.
DOC79 AD, 161 aMCI, 261 SCD and 196 NCCross-sectionalLi et al (2022)29 An increasing trend of overconfidence with the decline of cognition across the AD spectrum.
ECog362 NC, 422 MCI and 111 dementiaCross-sectionalGagliardi and Vannini (2021)30 Increased awareness observed in the NC and decreased awareness observed in the MCI and dementia with greater amyloid burden.
MARS53 MCI (Aβ+), 15 NCCross-sectionalAntoine et al (2019)32 Low awareness was related to disconnection within the medial temporal subsystem of the default mode network.
ECog293 MCI with intact self-awareness, 175 MCI with impaired self-awareness24-month follow-upTherriault et al (2018)33 MCI with impaired awareness had increased amyloid-β uptake in the posterior cingulate cortex at baseline and a nearly threefold likelihood of conversion to dementia.
ECog360 NC, 592 MCI, 114 dementiaLongitudinally, average number of visits=4.3Hanseeuw et al (2020)34 Awareness decreased faster in participants with increased amyloid-β burden.
Electronic assessment tools
DCTclock264 NC, 36 MCI/dementiaCross-sectionalRentz et al (2021)36 AUC=0.86 to screen for patients with MCI/dementia.
BHA185 NC, 99 MCI (29 likely due to AD) and 42 dementiaCross-sectionalPossin et al (2018)125 AUC=0.93 to screen for patients with MCI likely due to AD.
CBB2866 NC and 226 MCICross-sectionalAlden et al (2021)38 For discriminating all NC and MCI, AUC=0.75; for discriminating NC (A−T−) and MCI (A+T+), AUC=0.93; when differentiating MCI without AD biomarkers from those with pAD, AUC=0.86.
AMES99 NC, 43 MCICross-sectionalHuang et al (2023)40 AUC=0.88 to screen for patients with MCI.
SCS140 NC, 80 MCICross-sectionalHuang et al (2023)41 AUC=0.84 to screen for patients with MCI.
  • ACE-III, Third version of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination; AD, Alzheimer’s disease; aMCI, amnestic mild cognitive impairment; AMES, Automated Memory and Executive Screening Instrument; AUC, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; Aβ−, negative amyloid-β deposition; Aβ+, positive amyloid-β deposition; BHA, Brain Health Assessment; CaST, category switching test; CBB, Cogstate Brief Battery; DCTclock, digital clock-drawing test; DOC, degree of confidence; ECog, Everyday Cognition Scale; FOK, feeling of knowing tasks; JOL, judgements of learning; LASSI-L, Loewenstein-Acevedo Scales for Semantic Interference and Learning; MARS, Memory Awareness Rating Scale; MCI, mild cognitive impairment; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; MoCA-B, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Basic version; NC, cognitively normal adults; pAD, prodromal stage of AD; SCD, subjective cognitive decline; SCS, Shanghai Cognitive Screening.