Table 2

Blood-based biomarker categorisation for Alzheimer’s disease

CategoryMarkers
Core biomarkers
 A (Amyloid) Aβ42 Aβ42/Aβ40
Aβ oligomersAβ37Aβ38
 T (Tau) P-tau181 P-tau217 P-tau231 P-tau205
P-tau199P-tau202MTBR-243
Non-specific biomarkers
 N (Neurodegeneration) NfL
T-tauNeurograninSNAP25GAP-43
SV2ANPTX2
 I (Inflammation) GFAP
YKL-40sTREM 2
  • Biomarkers in bold were confirmed in blood and cerebrospinal fluid; others were established only in cerebrospinal fluid by far.

  • Aβ, amyloid-β; GAP, growth-associated protein; GFAP, glial fibrillar acidic protein; MTBR, microtubule binding region; NfL, neurofilament light; NPTX, neuronal pentraxin; P-tau, phosphorylated tau; SNAP, synaptosomal associated protein; sTREM, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells; SV2A, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A; T-tau, total tau; YKL-40, chitinase-3-like protein 1.