Table 3

Current structural and functional brain maps generated from the national brain projects

Map typeMain techniqueUnitIllustration
Anatomical structure mapAnatomyPhysiological structure Figure 1E
Anatomical cytoarchitecture mapMRI+histological section imagesMicro-structural parcellation Figure 1F 63
Anatomical cell (type) mapSingle-cell RNA sequencing24/proteomics/DNA methylation et al; serial high-throughput electron microscopy64 Single cell Figure 1G 24
Figure 1H 64
Anatomical connectivity mapdMRI/DTINerve fibre bundle Figure 1I 65
Anatomical neuron projection mapHD-fMOST33; VISoR+SMART66 Neuron projection Figure 1J 67
Functional connectivity mapfMRI; EEG; MEG; fNIRSRegion of interest Figure 1K 68
Functional neural circuit mapNeuron tracing; serial electron microscopic reconstruction; electrophysiological and optical methods42 Neural circuit Figure 1L 69
(functional) Subjective concept mapfMRI+sematic mapping algorithm70 Word Figure 1M 70
  • dMRI, dynamic MRI; DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; EEG, electroencephalogram; fMRI, functional MRI; fNIRS, functional near-infrared spectroscopy; HD-fMOST, high-definition fluorescent micro-optical sectioning tomography; MEG, magnetoencephalogram; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; SMART, a pipeline with serial sectioning and clearing, three-dimensional microscopy with semiautomated reconstruction and tracing; VISoR, volumetric imaging with synchronised on-the-fly-scan and readout.