Table 1

Characteristics of melancholic, atypical and anxious subtypes of MDD in the study participants

CharacteristicsPatients with MDDHealthy participantsP value
MelancholicAtypicalAnxious
n=44n=37n=44n=33
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years), mean (SD)27.8 (7.2)26.9 (7.1)28.2 (7.8)27.5 (8.7)0.888*
 Gender, n (%)
  Female29 (65.9)21 (56.8)30 (68.2)19 (57.6)0.640†
  Male15 (34.1)16 (43.2)14 (31.8)14 (42.4)
 Marital status, n (%)
  Unmarried33 (75.0)26 (70.3)30 (68.2)27 (81.8)0.209†
  Married/cohabitation9 (20.5)6 (16.2)13 (29.5)5 (15.2)
  Divorced/separated2 (4.5)5 (13.5)1 (2.3)1 (3.0)
 Career, n (%)
  Employed26 (59.1)18 (48.6)20 (45.5)9 (27.3) 0.010
  Student14 (31.8)14 (37.8)18 (40.9)24 (72.7)
  Unemployed4 (9.1)5 (13.5)6 (13.6)0 (0.0)
 Education (years), mean (SD)15.6 (1.8)14.0 (3.9)15.3 (2.4)16.2 (2.7) 0.007*
 BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)20.5 (3.3)20.1 (6.9)21.2 (2.8)22.2 (3.4)0.189*
Clinical characteristics
 17-HDRS total score, mean (SD)23.3 (4.3)20.4 (3.1)24.5 (4.3)0.8 (0.9) <0.001*
 Five-factor scores of 17-HDRS, mean (SD)
  Anxiety/somatisation6.7 (2.2)6.0 (1.7)9.0 (1.5)0.3 (0.6) <0.001
  Cognitive disturbance4.4 (1.4)3.9 (1.3)4.0 (1.7)0.1 (0.1) <0.001
  Sleep disturbance3.4 (1.8)2.8 (1.6)3.1 (1.8)0.3 (0.5) <0.001
  Psychomotor retardation7.6 (1.4)7.5 (1.6)7.6 (1.8)0.1 (0.1) <0.001
  Weight loss0.9 (0.9)0.3 (0.6)0.6 (0.8)0.1 (0.4) <0.001
 IDS-30 total score, mean (SD)47.3 (10.5)40.2 (9.3)39.3 (10.1)/ <0.001*
 QOL total score, mean (SD)15.5 (2.7)15.8 (2.3)16.3 (2.5)/0.319*
 QIDS-SR (16) total score, mean (SD)21.9 (6.3)18.9 (5.5)18.2 (5.9)/ 0.008*
 First onset, n (%)24 (54.5)24 (64.9)30 (68.2)/0.471†
 Recrudescence, n (%)19 (43.2)13 (35.1)14 (31.8)/
 Age of first depressive episode, n (%)25.2 (8.7)24.5 (8.6)25.9 (7.6)/0.763*
 Duration of current episode, mean (SD)26.3 (39.7)41.1 (128.8)26.5 (60.7)/0.664*
  ≤6 months, n (%)14 (31.8)13 (35.1)17 (38.6)/0.814†
  6 to ≤12 months, n (%)10 (22.7)12 (32.4)13 (29.5)/
  12 to ≤24 months, n (%)8 (18.2)4 (10.8)4 (9.1)/
  24 to ≤60 months, n (%)6 (13.6)5 (13.5)7 (15.9)/
  60 to ≤120 months, n (%)3 (6.8)1 (2.7)0 (0.0)/
  >120 months, n (%)2 (4.5)2 (5.4)2 (4.5)/
NA, n(%)1 (2.3)/1 (2.3)/
 Appetite symptoms, n (%) 0.019
  None10 (22.7)8 (21.6)10 (22.7)/
  Decreased30 (68.2)16 (43.2)29 (65.9)/
  Increased4 (9.1)13 (35.1)5 (11.4)/
 Pain symptoms, n (%)0.920†
  None14 (31.8)13 (35.1)15 (34.1)/
  Moderate and mild22 (50.0)18 (48.6)24 (54.5)/
  Severe8 (18.2)6 (16.2)5 (11.4)/
 Gastrointestinal symptoms0.932†
  None8 (18.2)7 (18.9)7 (15.9)/
  Present36 (81.8)30 (81.1)37 (84.1)/
Follow-up
 8-week follow-up, n (%)0.080†
  Remission7 (15.9)10 (27.0)13 (29.5)/
  No remission22 (50.0)9 (24.3)14 (31.8)/
  Dropped out15 (34.1)18 (48.6)17 (38.6)/
  17-HDRS total score, mean (SD)8.7 (4.9)9.5 (6.6)9.1 (7.3)/0.911*
  QIDS-SR (16) total score, mean (SD)9.4 (6.0)9.4 (7.5)8.4 (7.6)/0.848*
  QOL total score, mean (SD)20.4 (3.6)20.5 (2.9)19.4 (3.4)/0.449*
 12-week follow-up, n (%)
  Remission10 (22.7)5 (13.5)13 (29.5)/0.433†
  No remission17 (38.6)11 (29.7)13 (29.5)/
  Dropped out17 (38.6)21 (56.8)18 (40.9)/
  17-HDRS total score, mean (SD)6.0 (4.3)9.2 (6.7)8.2 (7.9)/0.2461*
  QIDS-SR (16) total score, mean (SD)6.7 (5.0)10.2 (8.9)6.4 (5.2)/0.117*
  QOL total score, mean (SD)21.4 (2.5)10.8 (3.1)20.8 (2.9)/0.193*
  • Superscripts represent statistical results analysed by specific statistical methods.

  • Bold p values indicate <0.05.

  • The bold values means statistically significant difference.

  • *One-way analysis of variance.

  • †χ2 test.

  • ‡Kruskal-Wallis H test.

  • BMI, body mass index; 17-HDRS, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; IDS-30, 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Rated Version; MDD, major depressive disorder; QIDS-SR (16), 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report; QOL, Quality of Life.