Table 2

Comparison of the five PANSS factors among groups (multivariate analysis of covariance)

ItemLSRMSRHSRStatisticsP values
Positive symptoms16.02 (5.18)14.03 (4.12)15.00 (5.17)F=0.2320.793
 P1 (Delusions)3.53 (1.52)2.73 (1.38)2.87 (1.48)F=1.5770.210
 P3 (Hallucinatory)3.15 (1.63)3.09 (1.44)3.22 (1.47)F=0.2940.746
 P5 (Grandiosity)2.07 (1.31)1.55 (0.80)1.87 (1.32)F=1.5890.207
 P6 (Suspiciousness)3.98 (1.25)3.63 (1.25)3.78 (1.29)F=0.1800.835
 G9 (Unusual thought content)3.29 (1.40)3.03 (1.19)3.25 (1.40)F=0.5050.605
Negative symptoms18.15 (6.21)17.18 (6.16)18.58 (6.26)F=1.1390.322
 N1 (Blunted affect)2.25 (1.15)2.43 (1.12)2.62 (0.95)F=3.3390.038
 N2 (Emotional withdrawal)3.46 (1.12)3.04 (1.02)3.38 (0.93)F=1.7180.182
 N3 (Poor rapport)2.12 (1.23)2.00 (1.07)2.24 (1.19)F=1.3950.251
 N4 (Passive apathetic social withdrawal)3.25 (1.21)2.90 (1.25)3.20 (1.22)F=0.8480.430
 N6 (Lack of spontaneity)2.08 (1.28)1.88 (1.05)2.24 (1.28)F=1.7630.175
 G7 (Motor retardation)1.76 (1.12)1.88 (0.90)1.76 (1.04)F=0.8100.446
 G16 (Active social avoidance)3.22 (1.12)3.04 (1.24)3.15 (1.06)F=0.0470.954
Disorganisation18.66 (6.33)16.09 (4.69)18.29 (6.11)F=3.0390.050
 P2 (Conceptual disorganisation)2.51 (1.39)2.03 (0.98)2.36 (1.35)F=1.3970.250
 N5 (Difficulty in abstract thinking)1.93 (1.11)1.63 (0.81)2.02 (1.05)F=3.0470.050
 N7 (Stereotyped thinking)2.37 (1.07)1.69 (0.93)2.16 (1.12)F=4.2600.016
 G5 (Mannerisms/posturing)1.17 (0.62)1.09 (0.42)1.15 (0.45)F=0.2900.749
 G10 (Disorientation)1.75 (1.08)1.37 (0.67)1.62 (0.89)F=0.8290.438
 G11 (Poor attention)3.51 (0.73)3.22 (0.78)3.45 (0.77)F=1.4210.244
 G13 (Disturbance of volition)2.19 (0.96)2.10 (0.86)2.40 (0.99)F=3.8020.024
 G15 (Preoccupation)3.24 (1.43)2.96 (1.16)3.13 (1.33)F=0.5640.570
Affect10.17 (2.91)11.93 (3.06)12.27 (2.97)F=5.7380.004
 G1 (Somatic concern)1.54 (1.07)1.58 (0.80)1.49 (0.88)F=0.1280.880
 G2 (Anxiety)2.49 (1.01)3.07 (0.89)3.16 (0.79)F=5.9030.003
 G3 (Guilt feelings)1.53 (0.92)2.09 (1.11)2.29 (1.08)F=6.1780.003
 G4 (Tension)1.85 (1.05)2.10 (0.84)2.25 (0.89)F=3.0360.051
 G6 (Depression)2.76 (1.56)3.07 (1.02)3.07 (1.10)F=0.3690.692
Resistance9.03 (3.46)7.01 (2.92)7.82 (2.69)F=3.8490.023
 P4 (Excitement)1.81 (1.07)1.37 (0.81)1.60 (0.94)F=0.9570.386
 P7 (Hostility)2.85 (1.01)2.27 (1.07)2.49 (0.98)F=2.8490.061
 G8 (Uncooperativeness)1.76 (1.06)1.42 (0.80)1.42 (0.88)F=1.2210.297
 G14 (Poor impulse control)2.61 (1.16)1.96 (1.09)2.31 (1.09)F=3.9160.022
  • The figures in the table are means (SD).

  • HSR, high scores on self-reflectiveness; LSR, low scores on self-reflectiveness; MSR, medium scores on self-reflectiveness; PANSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.