Table 1

Characteristics and findings of reviewed clinical studies

Disorder and first author (year)Study design, participant age and groupSFN treatment (route/dose)Study durationMain findings
ASD, Singh (2014)47 RCT, 13–27 years.
SFN (n=26), placebo (n=14).
Oral route.
Weight-based dose: 50 µmol (<45.36 kg), 100 µmol (45.81–90.26 kg) or 150 µmol (>90.72 kg) per day.
22 weeks (18 weeks of treatment; 4 weeks of follow-up without treatment).SFN significantly improved ABC and SRS scores by 34% (p<0.001) and 17% (p=0.017), respectively, as well as improved the social interaction (p=0.007), abnormal behaviour (p=0.014) and verbal communication (p=0.015) on CGI-I. When the administration of sulforaphane stopped, the total scores of all scales returned to pretreatment levels.
ASD, Bent (2018)49 Open-label study, 5–22 years.
SFN (n=15).
Oral route.
Weight-based dose: 1.14 µmol/kg.
12 weeks.SFN significantly improved the ABC score by 7.1 points (-7.1) (95% CI: −17.4 to 3.2, p=0.18) and SRS score by 9.7 points (-9.7) (95% CI: −18.7 to −0.8, p=0.03).
ASD, Momtazmanesh (2020)50 RCT, 4–12 years.
Risperidone+SFN (n=30), risperidone+placebo (n=30).
Oral route.
Weight-based dose: 50 µmol (≤45 kg) or 100 µmol (>45 kg) per day.
10 weeks.SFN showed significant improvement in irritability score (p=0.001) and hyperactivity/non-compliance score (p=0.015), as well as significant time by treatment effect for irritability (p=0.007) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (p=0.008).
ASD, Zimmerman (2021)29 RCT, 3–12 years.
SFN (n=22), placebo (n=23).
Oral route.
Weight-based dose: 2.2 µmol/kg/day.
36 weeks (15 weeks of treatment; open-label SFN treatment of all children for 15 weeks;
6 weeks of follow-up without treatment).
SFN showed significant improvement on the ABC scale at 15 weeks (p<0.02) and a tendency to improve the total score on OACIS-I at 7 and 15 weeks.
Depression, Ghazizadeh-Hashemi (2021)51 RCT, 40–65 years+cardiac intervention history.
SFN (n=30), placebo (n=30).
Oral route 30 mg/day.6 weeks.The sulforaphane group exhibited greater improvement on HAM-D scores (p<0.001), higher rate of response to treatment (30% vs 6.67%, p=0.042) and an upward tendency towards remission (23.33% vs 3.33%, p=0.052).
Schizophrenia, Shiina
Open-label study, 20–65 years.
SFN (n=7).
Oral route 30 mg/day.8 weeks.After SFN treatment, the mean scores in the OCLT showed a significant increase from 0.88 to 0.95 (p=0.043).
Schizophrenia, Dickerson (2021)55 RCT, 18–65 years.
SFN (n=29), placebo (n=29).
100 µmol/day.18 weeks (2 weeks of single-blind placebo treatment followed by 16 weeks of double-blind SFN or placebo treatment).No significant difference in psychiatric symptoms or cognitive function was observed between the SFN or placebo group.
  • ABC, Aberrant Behavior Checklist; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; CGI-I, Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale; HAM-D, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; OACIS-I, Ohio Autism Clinical Impressions Scale-Improvement; OCLT, One Card Learning Task; RCT, randomised clinical trials; SFN, sulforaphane; SRS, Social Responsiveness Scale.